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I have never been so amazed at how many words comes from Arabic origin. Let’s look at a few right here. (Taken directly from Wikipedia I’m afraid)
البرقوق al-barqūq, apricot. Arabic is in turn traceable back to Early Byzantine Greek and thence to classical Latin praecoqua, literally “precocious” and specifically precociously ripening peaches, i.e. apricots. The Arabic was passed onto the late medieval Spanish albarcoque and Catalan albercoc, each meaning apricot.
عوار ʿawār, a defect, or anything defective or damaged, including partially spoiled merchandise; plus عواري ʿawārī = “of or relating to ʿawār“; and عوارية ʿawārīa (slimly attested wordform), relating to a state of partial damage. Within the Western languages the word’s history begins in medieval sea-commerce on the Mediterranean.
قند qand + قندي qandī, sugared. Cane sugar developed in ancient India. Medieval Persian qand = “cane sugar” is believed to have probably come from Sanskritic.The plant is native to a tropical climate. The medieval Arabs grew the plant with artificial irrigation and exported some of the product to the Latins.
قيروان qaīrawān, convoy of travelers journeying together, which could be a merchant convoy or military or other convoy. Qaīrawān is in all the main medieval Arabic dictionaries. It is somewhat frequently used in medieval Arabic writings, even though not nearly as frequently as the synonymous Arabic qāfila. In the Western languages the word has records since the 12th century.
شاه shāh, king in the game of chess. The many uses of “check” in English are all descended from Persian shah = “king” and the use of this word in the game of chess to mean “check the king”. Chess was introduced to medieval Europe through Arabs. The medieval Arabs probably pronounced the last h in shāh harder and more forcefully than how shah is pronounced in English or in today’s Arabic.